Many environmentalists rank global warming as the most
serious current threat to the world's environment,
citing evidence that over the past 30 years, the global
temperature has risen an average of 2 degrees. However,
the average global temperature this year is equal to the
average global temperature of last year. Global warming,
therefore, is not as serious a problem as these
The argument is most vulnerable to the criticism that it
(A) Argues that because a threat is present, that threat
must be more serious than any other possible threat.
(B) Concludes that because there is lack of evidence for
a problem, that problem does not exist.
(C) Attempts to refute a conclusion about a general
trend by appealing to a single counterexample, even
though such a counterexample may be consistent with the
(D) Relies on the ambiguous use of a key term.
(E) Presupposes what is seeks to establish.
2. Independent tests have confirmed that, on average,
the antilock brakes found on Griffon min-vans outperform
those of any other mini-van. Thus, any consumer who is
purchasing a mini-van based solely on the criteria of
safety should purchase a Griffon mini-van.
Which one of the following statements, if true, most
weakens the argument?
(A) Mini-vans are less safe than some other types of
(B) Most consumers purchase cars based on multiple
criteria in addition to safety.
(C) During the test, the brakes on some Phoenix
mini-vans outperformed those on some Griffon mini-vans.
(D) The brakes on Griffon mini-vans are simple to use
(E) The Phoenix mini-vans achieved a better frontal
crash-test rating than the Griffon mini-vans.
3. Any person who uses words ambiguously cannot become a
journalist, since journalistic reporting cannot invite
Which of the following, if assumed, would allow the
conclusion above to be properly drawn?
(A) No person who invites artistic interpretation can
use words ambiguously.
(B) Any person who uses words ambiguously will invite
artistic interpretation in their reporting.
(C) Any journalist who invites artistic interpretation
will sometimes use words ambiguously.
(D) Either a journalist uses words ambiguously or that
journalist invites artistic interpretation.
(E) No journalist who invites artistic interpretation
can become a great journalist.
4. Home alarm systems are commonly regarded by insurance
companies as improving the safety of the home. However,
statistics show that the break-in rate for homes
equipped with such alarms is slightly higher than the
break-in rate for houses without such alarms.
Which of the following statements, if true, would most
help to reconcile the insurance companies' belief with
the statistics cited?
(A) Home alarm systems are generally installed only in
those homes that are in theft-prone areas.
(B) Because home alarm systems generate many false
alarms, authorities are slow to respond to such alarms.
(C) Without signs announcing the presence of a home
alarm system, the system does little to deter theft.
(D) Home alarm systems offer little protection against
(E) Many home owners state that they feel safer after
purchasing a home alarm system.
5. Some people interpret the phrase "survival of the
fittest" as "survival of the strongest." However,
inasmuch as "strong" is interpreted as "physical size
and prowess", this is incorrect. Although strength and
size provide a survival advantage within a species in
such tasks as breeding, fighting for food, and running
from predators, a species will survive only if its
overall resource requirement for maintaining its
strength does not outweigh the resources available, as
is often the case during a famine or other ecological
Based on the passage above, which of the following
statements must be true?
(A) If a species' resource requirement for maintaining
its strength outweighs the resources available, that
species will not survive.
(B) Strength does not provide a survival advantage for
(C) The phrase "survival of the fittest" should not be
used by the scientific community.
(D) The species with the least strength is the most
likely to survive in a famine.
(E) If a species does not survive an ecological
disaster, it is because that species' resource
requirement for maintaining its strength outweighed the
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